Chapter 20: Non-Aboriginal Heritage

20.1.5 Study area

The study area for the non-Aboriginal heritage impact assessment comprises the project footprint and a buffer determined by the character and visual corridors surrounding the project footprint to ensure indirect impacts are appropriately assessed (ie visual impacts). The study area is separated into six areas that would be subject to surface disturbance as part of the project and the area above the mainline tunnel alignment. The six areas of surface disturbance comprise:

  • Area 1 – Haberfield/Ashfield (Option A around Wattle Street, and Option B around Alt Street and Bland Street)
  • Area 2 – Leichhardt (around Darley Road)
  • Area 3 – Rozelle, Lilyfield and Annandale (around the Rozelle Rail Yards, The Crescent, Rozelle Bay and Victoria Road)
  • Area 4  – Iron Cove (around Victoria Road)
  • Area 5 – Annandale (around Pyrmont Bridge Road and Parramatta Road)
  • Area 6 – St Peters (around the St Peters interchange).

Within the six areas of surface disturbance, 11 Historical Archaeological Management Units (HAMUs) have been identified to assess the level of archaeological potential within the study area, as outlined in Table 20-2. There are no HAMUs at Area 1 – Haberfield (for Option A1 only) and Area 6 – St Peters as these areas have been previously assessed as part of the M4 East and New M5 projects. Option B at Haberfield/Ashfield contains construction ancillary facilities which have not previously been subject to assessment by the M4 East project. This area has therefore been included in the M4-M5 Link assessment.
Table 20-2 HAMUs within the study area

Area 1 – Haberfield/Ashfield HAMU 1 Haberfield/Ashfield
Area 2 – Leichhardt HAMU 2 Darley Road
Area 3 – Rozelle, Lilyfield and Annandale HAMU 3 Lilyfield Road and Gordon Street,
HAMU 4 Victoria Road/City West Link,  HAMU 5 Rozelle Rail Yards (West), HAMU                6 Rozelle Rail Yards (East), HAMU 7 White Bay Power Station
Area 4 – Iron Cove HAMU 8 Iron Cove,  HAMU 9 Manning Street bioretention facility
Area 5 – Annandale HAMU 10 Bignell Lane,  HAMU 11 Parramatta Road/Pyrmont Bridge                  Road
Area 6 – St Peters None N/A
The study area and HAMUs are presented in Figure 20-1 to Figure 20-6.

20.1.8 Approach to the assessment of potential impacts

Impact ratings have been established to rank the degree of impact (ie severity) on non-Aboriginal heritage, as outlined in section 20.3. These impact ratings have been used for previous similar projects including the CBD and South East Light Rail Heritage Impact Assessment (GML 2013) and M4 East Non-Aboriginal Heritage Impact Assessment (GML 2015). It should be noted that the impact severity is not related to the significance of the heritage item.
The assessment has assigned an impact type to each heritage item and HCA as follows:

  • Settlement (above tunnel)
  • Setting (including visual impacts)
  • Vibration
  • Partial demolition
  • Full demolition.

20.2 Existing environment

20.2.2 Historical overview

Area 5 –  Annandale

Annandale is located around four kilometres south-west of the Sydney CBD and is characterised as a mixed use commercial/residential area oriented around Parramatta Road. The area is generally occupied by medium density development of predominantly industrial character. Buildings date primarily from the early to mid-20th century, punctuated by contemporary apartment developments.

The Annandale area is part of Governor William Bligh’s 240 acre grant, made to him by Governor Philip Gidley King in 1806. Bligh’s wife died in 1813 and he died in 1817. After his death, his landholdings were passed on to his six surviving daughters.

By the 1840s, the Camperdown Estate was in the ownership of Sir Maurice O’Connell, who had married Bligh’s widowed daughter, Mary Putland. In 1842, the Camperdown Estate was subdivided and sold. Most of the blocks were villa allotments, up to two hectares in size, but there were also smaller residential lots. New streets were also laid out, including a new alignment of George Street (present day Parramatta Road).
Parramatta Road was constructed in the first years of the colony to link the two European settlements of Sydney and Rose Hill (later renamed Parramatta). It is highly probable, although no written account confirms it, that the first European-made track between the two settlements followed an Aboriginal pathway. The creation date of the first European-made track also remains unknown, but was likely to have been sometime in 1790 or 1791.
By 1924, the residential cottages along Parramatta Road at Annandale were being replaced with factories, stores and shops. There have been minimal physical changes to the Annandale area since the 1940s. In 1937, the Bank of NSW purchased 164 Parramatta Road. The Bank of NSW was established by Governor Macquarie in 1817 and was Australia’s oldest financial institution. In 1982 the Bank of NSW merged with the Commercial Bank of Australia Ltd and changed its name to Westpac Banking Corporation.

20.2.3 Historical archaeology

This section describes the historical archaeological potential of the study area. The heritage significance of each HAMU has been determined at the state or local level. This section also describes the potential impact on the archaeological resource resulting from construction of the project.

Area 3 –  Rozelle, Lilyfield and Annandale

The majority of the Rozelle area has been modified by historical development. HAMUs 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 are located in Area 3. Table 20-8 summarises the past developments in the area and the nature, level and extent of previous disturbance. Table 20-9 summarises the potential for archaeological remains to be present within the HAMUs identified in Area 3, and the significance of those remains.

HAMUs in Area 3 range from low to high degrees of archaeological potential. HAMU 3 and HAMU 6 have potential for locally significance archaeological remains, while HAMU 4 and HAMU 5 do not meet the threshold for significance. HAMU 7 is considered to have high potential for state significant archaeological remains associated with White Bay Power Station.
Table 20-8 Summary of previous disturbance at Rozelle, Lilyfield and Annandale (Area 3)

Area 5 –  Annandale

The majority of the Annandale (around Pyrmont Bridge Road and Parramatta Road) area has been artificially modified by historical urban development. HAMUs 10 and 11 are located in Area 5.

Table 20-12 summarises the past developments in the area and the nature and level of previous disturbance. Table 20-13 summarises the potential for archaeological remains to be present within the two HAMUs identified in Area 5, and the significance of those remains.

HAMU 10 encompasses those areas that have a moderate or high degree of archaeological potential.

HAMU 11 contains areas that have a low potential for archaeological remains. Both HAMUs meet the threshold for local significance.

Table 20-12 Summary of previous disturbance at Annandale (around Pyrmont Bridge Road and Parramatta Road) (Area 5) Past development Nat

20.2.5 Potential heritage

During the field surveys, buildings and structures of potential heritage value were investigated to identify items with heritage value that are not listed and may be directly or indirectly impacted by the project. Items of potential heritage significance were identified and were therefore subject to heritage values assessment and impact assessment. These items are outlined in Table 20-15 (items subject to full or partial demolition are shaded).
Table 20-15 Potential heritage items identified within the study area

20.3 Assessment of potential impacts

20.3.1 Historical archaeology

Surface works associated with construction of the project have the potential to affect the
archaeological resources identified in section 20.2. Table 20-16 outlines the potential impacts on the identified HAMUs.

Where required, management measures to mitigate potential impacts on archaeological resources within the study area have been recommended. These are included in section 20.4.

Area 5 –  Annandale
The majority of the Annandale (around Pyrmont Bridge Road and Parramatta Road) area has been artificially modified by historical urban development. HAMUs 10 and 11 are located in Area 5.

Table 20-12 summarises the past developments in the area and the nature and level of previous disturbance. Table 20-13 summarises the potential for archaeological remains to be present within the two HAMUs identified in Area 5, and the significance of those remains.

HAMU 10 encompasses those areas that have a moderate or high degree of archaeological potential.
HAMU 11 contains areas that have a low potential for archaeological remains. Both HAMUs meet the threshold for local significance.

Table 20-12 Summary of previous disturbance at Annandale (around Pyrmont Bridge Road and Parramatta Road) (Area 5)

Table 20-13 Potential archaeological presence at Annandale (around Pyrmont Bridge Road and Parramatta Road) (Area 5)

20.2.4 Heritage items and conservation areas

This section identifies the existing listed heritage items and HCAs within or adjacent to the project footprint. Listed heritage items and HCAs identified within the study area relevant to this assessment are summarised in Table 20-14 and shown in Figure 20-7 to Figure 20-14.

Items with the potential to be directly affected by the project are shaded in Table 20-14. The significance of these heritage items and HCAs are discussed further in Appendix U (Technical working paper: Non-Aboriginal heritage).
Potential impacts on items above the current mainline tunnel alignment are assessed in section 20.3.4.

20.2.5 Potential heritage

During the field surveys, buildings and structures of potential heritage value were investigated to identify items with heritage value that are not listed and may be directly or indirectly impacted by the project. Items of potential heritage significance were identified and were therefore subject to heritage values assessment and impact assessment. These items are outlined in Table 20-15 (items subject to full or partial demolition are shaded).

Table 20-15 Potential heritage items identified within the study area

Table 20-14 Historic heritage items within the study area

20.3 Assessment of potential impacts

20.3.1 Historical archaeology

Surface works associated with construction of the project have the potential to affect the
archaeological resources identified in section 20.2. Table 20-16 outlines the potential impacts on the identified HAMUs.
Where required, management measures to mitigate potential impacts on archaeological resourceswithin the study area have been recommended. These are included in section 20.4.

Table 20-16 Potential impacts on HAMUs within the study area

20.3.2 Heritage items and conservation areas

Construction of the project has the potential to impact on the heritage significance of the listed heritage items and HCAs in Table 20-14. Potential direct heritage impacts of the project include:

  • Full or partial demolition of listed heritage items
  • Full demolition of non-listed buildings assessed as having heritage values (potential heritage item)
  • Full demolition of contributory buildings within an HCA
  • Modifications to listed and potential heritage items/structures
  • Removal of heritage vegetation
  • Inadvertent damage to heritage trees/roots.

Potential indirect impacts of the project could include:

  • Impacts on the curtilage or visual setting of heritage items or HCAs at Haberfield and St Peters
  • Continued use of existing construction ancillary facilities in the vicinity of heritage items or HCAs
  • Vibration impact from earthworks, piling and tunnelling activities
  • Settlement from tunnelling activities.
  • Table 20-17 provides a summary of the listed heritage items that could potentially be impacted by the project.

In summary, the following impacts on non-Aboriginal heritage are expected from the project:

  • Three listed heritage items would be fully demolished (major adverse impact):
    – Stormwater Canal at Rozelle (local)
    – ‘Cadden Le Messurier’ at Rozelle (local)
    – Former Hotel Rozelle (local)
  • One item would be partially demolished (moderate adverse impact):                             – Whites Creek Stormwater Channel No. 95 at Rozelle (local)
  • Several other items would be subject to potential indirect impacts through vibration, settlement and visual setting.

Items subject to full and/or partial demolition are shaded in Table 20-17. These items are shown in Figure 20-15 to Figure 20-17.

Table 20-17 Summary of potential impacts on listed heritage items

20.3.3 Potential heritage

Table 20-18 provides a summary of the 17 identified items of potential heritage value that could be affected by the project. These items have been assessed as having potential local significance. In summary, the following impacts on potential heritage items are expected from the project:

  • Nine potential local heritage items would be subject to direct impacts through full demolition
  • One potential local heritage item would be subject to direct impacts through partial demolition
  • One structure assessed as being of potential state significance would be indirectly impacted through vibration
  • Six potential local heritage items and one potential state item would be subject to indirect impacts through setting, vibration and/or settlement.

Items subject to full or partial demolition are shaded in Table 20-18. These items are shown in Figure 20-15 to Figure 20-17.
Table 20-18 Summary of potential impacts on potential heritage items

20.3.4 Vibration and settlement

Heritage items, potential heritage items and HCAs along the tunnel alignment and in the vicinity of construction works may be subject to ground movement (predominantly settlement and vibration). Areas most likely to be affected by settlement are usually where tunnelling is closest to the ground surface (shallowest), around the tunnel portals and entry and exit ramps, and where soils are more likely to be compressible. This includes the estuarine and alluvial soils and fill material within the palaeovalley around the Rozelle Rail Yards.

The alignment of the tunnels and the locations of tunnel portals have given regard to maximising the use of the best possible geotechnical conditions. For much of its length, the tunnelling work for the project would be undertaken at depths of between 20 metres and greater than 65 metres below ground, which is unlikely to adversely affect structures above the tunnels.

Potential vibration impacts to heritage items have been assessed with 11 listed heritage items located within safe working distances of the project that may experience vibration impacts (see Table 20-17).

Other heritage items identified above the current project tunnelling alignment were considered with regard to vibration and settlement impacts. A detailed list of these items is provided in Appendix U (Technical working paper: Non-Aboriginal heritage). These items have been identified based on the current concept design, which may be subject to change following detailed design. Of these:

  • The majority of items are assessed as having a neutral impact due to the separation distance from the tunnels. This includes:
    – The Pressure Tunnel and Shafts (Potts Hill Road to Waterloo Pumping Station Potts Hill to Waterloo, NSW) listed as a State item on the SHR (#01630) and Sydney Water S170 Register (#4570942)
    – The City Tunnel (Potts Hill Reservoir to Dowling Street Pumping Station Potts Hill to Waterloo, NSW) listed as a local item on the Sydney Water S170 Register (#4570942).
  • Eight heritage items have the potential to be impacted by settlement and vibration from tunnelling activities (minor adverse impact) including:

– Semi-detached house at 15 Burt Street, Rozelle
– Semi-detached house at 17 Burt Street, Rozelle
– Smith’s Hall at 56 Burt Street, Rozelle
– Corner shop and residence at 67 Denison Street, Rozelle
– Shop and residence at 69 Denison Street, Rozelle
– House ‘Rotherhithe Cottage’ at 73 Denison Street, Rozelle
– Lilyfield (Catherine St) Overbridge at Catherine Street, Lilyfield
– St Peters Railway Station Group King Street, St Peters.
These potential impacts are assessed in detail in Appendix U (Technical working paper: NonAboriginal heritage).
The noise and vibration assessment in Appendix J (Technical working paper: Noise and vibration) identifies vibration criteria and impact assessment for sensitive receivers. The report identifies that the minimum ’safe limit’ of peak vibration velocity at low frequencies for structures (including heritage listed buildings), is three millimetres per second.

Vibration impacts would be managed in accordance with the recommendations of the noise and vibration assessment (Appendix J (Technical working paper: Noise and vibration)). Appropriate monitoring and protection of the physical fabric of heritage items to be retained would be provided during construction of the project.

Settlement is not anticipated to impact heritage items identified along the mainline tunnel alignment. A program to monitor settlement during operations would be outlined in the Operational Environmental Management Program for the project.

20.4 Environmental management measures

The detailed design and construction of the project would be managed to ensure that the identified potential heritage and archaeological impacts are minimised and/or avoided as far as practical, by implementing a range of environmental management measures.

The management measures provided in Table 20-19 have been developed to avoid, reduce and manage identified potential impacts on non-Aboriginal heritage. These measures would be further developed on a case by case basis during detailed design. The final management measures would be documented in the Construction Environmental Management Plan (CEMP).
Table 20-19 Environmental management measures – non-Aboriginal heritage

Impacts on heritage items
NAH01 A Construction Heritage Management Plan (CHMP) will be prepared and implemented as part of the CEMP. The CHMP will include:

  • Measures that will be implemented to manage potential impacts on items of heritage significance
  • Inclusion of heritage awareness and management training within the site induction process for relevant personnel involved in site works
  • Details regarding the conservation and curation of any historical artefacts recovered during works.
    Construction

NAH02 An Interpretation Strategy will be developed and implemented to identify and interpret the key heritage values and stories of the heritage areas affected by the project and inform the development of the Urban Design and Landscape Plan for the project, in
accordance with NSW Heritage Office Interpreting Heritage Places and Items Guideline August 2005. The Interpretation Strategy will:

  • Build on themes, stories and initiatives proposed as part of other stages of WestConnex to ensure a consistent approach to heritage interpretation for the project
  • Include themes and stories including the Rozelle railways historic functions, trains and trams transport, industrialisation and The RozelleDarling Harbour Goods Line
  • Identify how the rail related infrastructure salvaged from the Rozelle Rail Yards will be reused.

Construction

NAH03 Photographic recording will be undertaken of:

  • Infrastructure associated with the White Bay Power Station site that could be affected by the project
  • Whites Creek Stormwater Channel (in the area to
    be impacted)
  • Stormwater Canal off Lilyfield Road
  • ‘Cadden Le Messurier’ at 84 Lilyfield Road
  • Former Hotel at 78 Lilyfield Road
  • Victoria Road bridge
  • Each house at 260–266 Victoria Road
  • Each house at 248–250 Victoria Road
  • Former Bank of NSW (164 Parramatta Road).

It will be undertaken in accordance with the NSW Heritage Office guidelines Photographic Recording of Heritage Items Using Film or Digital Capture (2006).

The photographic recording will occur prior to any works that have the potential to impact upon the items and the report development process will include the
identification of appropriate stakeholders to receive copies of the documentation. Construction
NAH04 As part of the CHMP, a HARD will be prepared before the start of proposed works within each of the following HAMUs: HAMU 3, HAMU 6, HAMU 7, HAMU 9, HAMU 10, and HAMU 11. The HARD will be prepared by a qualified archaeologist in consultation with the NSW Heritage Council and would include:

  • Descriptions of clear significance thresholds for possible archaeological items that may be uncovered during works
  • A methodology and scope for a program of archaeological excavation, investigation, and recording of any historical archaeological remains that will be impacted by the project
  • Requirement for post-excavation reporting, including artefact analysis and additional historical research, where necessary, and long term management of records
  • Details of what will happen with any artefacts uncovered and associated reports.
    Construction

NAH05 Before excavation of archaeological management sites, a suitably qualified Excavation Director who complies with the Criteria for Assessment of Excavation Directors (Heritage Council of NSW 2011) will be engaged to advise on matters associated with historic archaeology. Where archaeological excavation is required, the Excavation Director will oversee excavation and advise on archaeological matters.
Construction

Heritage impacts due to vibration
NAH06 Potential vibration impacts to features of heritage significance will be managed in accordance with the Construction Noise and Vibration Management Plan
prepared for the project.
Construction

Heritage impacts due to settlement
NAH07 Potential heritage impacts due to settlement and ground movement caused by the project will be managed in accordance with the relevant measures identified in Chapter 12 (Land use and property) and monitored in accordance with the Settlement Monitoring Plan.

Construction

Impacts to unexpected items of potential heritage conservation significance or human remains
NAH08 Any items of potential heritage conservation significance or human remains discovered during construction will be managed in accordance with an Unexpected Heritage Finds and Humans Remains Procedure developed for the project in accordance with relevant guidance provided by the Heritage Council of NSW, the NSW Heritage Division of the Office of Environment and Heritage and Unexpected Archaeological Finds (Roads and Maritime 2015a). The procedure will detail requirements regarding notification of relevant agencies and the NSW Police and will be implemented for the duration of construction.
Construction
Impact on potential salvageable items
NAH09 A Heritage Salvage Strategy will be prepared to identify the salvage potential of the fabric and features from heritage items and potential heritage items that will be demolished to facilitate the project. This could include timber joinery, fireplaces, stained glass, stairs, decorative tiles, bricks, steel truss structures, windows etc. The strategy will also identify options and a process for dissemination of salvaged items to owners, community groups and interested parties.
Construction

NAH10 Sandstone kerbing in the vicinity of 32 and 34 Victoria Road, Rozelle that will be removed to facilitate the project will be salvaged and provided to Inner West  Council.
Construction
Loss of heritage where items are required to be demolished
NAH11 The railway cutting on the eastern side of Victoria Road, associated with the White Bay Power Station, will be considered during the development of the detailed design for the realigned Victoria Road and associated bridge. The final design will seek to avoid impact to the railway cutting and maintain the visual relationship between the cutting and the White Bay Power Station site. Landscaping sympathetic to the relationship, developed in consultation with a heritage specialist, will be included in the Urban Design and Landscape Plan for the project.
Construction

NAH12 A condition assessment of the southern penstock (and its associated water channels) will be carried out by a heritage specialist and a structural engineer prior to
any works in the vicinity with the potential impact upon the item. If required any conservation works required to limit potential impacts on deteriorated fabric (loose
bricks, corroded steel) will be identified and implemented prior to construction.
Construction

NAH13 The southern penstock and its associated water channels (location and extent unknown) will be protected during works associated with the
reconstruction of the Victoria Road Bridge.
Construction

Potential impact to Whites Creek
NAH14 The new bridge over the Whites Creek Stormwater Channel must not impact the extant significant heritage fabric of the channel and should be a solely
Construction

Stormwater Channel No. 95
independent structure.

Potential impacts on Leichhardt (Darley Road)
NAH15 Landscaping, following the construction of the substation, should consider screening the substation and water treatment plant, from the Leichhardt (Charles Street) Underbridge. The design and location of the landscaping will be informed by a heritage
specialist and should seek to create a visual separation between the new structure and the heritage item.
Construction

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